1854 British Infantry Manual

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PART II. OF THE COMPANY.
Sec. 1. Formation of the Company.

The Recruit, being thoroughly grounded in all the preceding parts of the drill, is now to be instructed in the movements of the company, as a more immediate preparation for his joining the battalion: for this purpose from 10 to 20 files are to be assembled, formed, and told off, in the following manner, as a company in the battalion.

The company FALLS IN at close order, with shouldered arms the files lightly touching, but without crowding; each. man will then occupy a space of about 21 inches. The commander of the company takes post on the right of the front rank, covered by a serjeant in the rear rank. The other serjeants will form a third or supernumerary rank, three paces from the rear rank.

When a company is thus singly formed with its officers, the captain is on the right, and the other officers in the rear, as also the drummer or pioneer in a third rank, at three paces distance. In this formation companies are to assemble on their private parades, being sized from flanks to centre.

The company will be told off in sub-divisions, and four sections. If four officers are present, the captain, when the company is in column of sections, takes the leading section, the next in seniority the third section, the third in rank the fourth section 1 and the junior officer the second., The covering serjeant will cover the second file from the pivot of the leading section. When there are but three officers, the covering serjeant will take the second section from the head of the column. The company will also be told off by threes from the right, numbered 1, 2, 3.

Should there be a blank file in telling off the company in line, it will invariably be the fourth file from the left.

When thus formed, the company will be practised in:-

  • Opening and Closing of Ranks (Sec., 27 and 28, Part I)
  • Dressing to the front / to the rear / in an oblique direction, by the right and left;
  • and be exercised in the several motions of the firelock.

Close order is the chief and primary order in which the battalion and. its parts at all times assemble and form. Open order is only regarded as an exception from it, and occasionally used in situations of parade and show. In close order, the rear rank is closed up to within one pace, the length of which is to be taken from the. heels of one rank to, the heels of the other rank. In open order, they are two paces distant. from each other; when for inspection, three paces.

In order to distinguish the words of command given by the instructor of the drill (who represents the commander of the battalion). from those given by the commander of the company, or its divisions, the commands of the former are in CAPITAL letters, those of the latter in Italic.

Sec. 2. Marching to the Front.
BY THE RIGHT (OR LEFT) MARCH
or
QUICK MARCH.

1. In the drill of the company, the person instructing must always consider it as a company in battalion, and regulate all its movements upon that principle; he will therefore, before he puts it in motion to front or rear, indicate which flank is to direct, by giving the word BY THE RIGHT, LEFT, OR CENTRE, MARCH, on which eyes will be directed full to the front, and the touch preserved to the named flank, or to the centre, as required. Should the right be the directing flank, the commander of the company himself will fix on objects to march upon in a line truly perpendicular to the front of the company; and when the left flank is ordered to direct, he and his covering serjeant will shift by the rear to the left of the front rank, and take such objects to march upon. The conductor of the company, before the word MARCH is given, will remark some distinct object on the ground, in his own front, and perpendicular to the directing flank: he will then observe some nearer and intermediate point in the same line, such as a stone, tuft of grass, &c.; he will move upon them with accuracy, and as he approaches the nearest of those points, he must, from time to time, choose fresh ones in the original direction, which he will by this means preserve, never having fewer than two such points to move upon.

2. As the MARCH of every body, except in the case of inclining, is made on lines perpendicular to its front, each individual composing that body must remain perfectly square to the given line; otherwise he will naturally and insensibly move in a direction perpendicular to his own person, and thereby open out or close in, according to the manner in which he is turned from the true point of his march. If the distortion of a single man operates in this manner, and all turnings of the head do so distort him, it may be easily imagined what that of several will occasion, each of whom is marching on a different front, and whose lines of direction are crossing each other.

The company, during its march in line, will occasionally be ordered to:-

Step out. . . . . . .vide PART 1. Sec. 8.
Mark Time . . . . . .---------------- 10.
Step Short. . . . . .----------------- 9.
Open and close rank .---------------- 33.
Oblique . . . . . . .---------------- 22.
Diagonal March . . . ---------------- 23.

Sec. 3. The Side Step.

The side or closing step must also be frequently practised; it is very necessary and useful on many occasions, when halted, and when a very small distance is to be moved to either flank.

TO THE RIGHT (OR LEFT) CLOSE.

When the whole company is to close to a flank, if supposed to he a division of a column, its commander remains in his place upon the flank, and closes with his company; but if the company is to be considered as the division of a line, and no stated number of paces is mentioned, its commander will in that case step nimbly forward on the caution TO THE RIGHT (OR LEFT) CLOSE, and place himself three paces in front of that flank which is suppose the inner one, or that which is nearest to the centre of the line, in order that he may be prepared to halt his company at the proper time, as well as to take a general superintendence of its movement.

QUICK MARCH.

At the word QUICK MARCH, the men step off together.

HALT.

On the word HALT being given, the officer instantly resumes his place in the line by the rear, if .Commanding a company of the right wing.

Sec. 4. The Back Step.
STEP BACK - MARCH.

The company must be accustomed from the halt, at the word STEP BACK - MARCH, to step back any ordered number of paces.

Sec. 5. To Form Four Deep.
FORM FOUR DEEP.
MARCH.

1. The company will be told off from the right by alternate files right and left; and when it is intended to form four deep, preserving the same front, the word FORM FOUR DEEP will be given, upon which the rear rank will step back one pace, and on the word MARCH, the left files will double behind the right files, by taking one pace to the-rear with the left feet, and one pace to the right with the right feet, which forms four deep, leaving, the intervals which the left files had qutted.

REAR, FORM FOUR DEEP,
MARCH.

2. When four deep is to he formed to the rear.
On the same caution, the rear rank will step back as before, and on the word MARCH, the whole go to the right about, and the left files will then double as before, in the proper rear of the right files.

RIGHT, FORM FOUR DEEP.
MARCH.

3. When ground is to be taken to the right in the formation of four deep. - On the caution, the rear rank steps back as before, and on the word MARCH, the whole face to the right, and the left files, at the same instant, form on the right of the right, files, taking one pace to the right with the right feet, and one pace to the front with the left feet.

LEFT, FORM FOUR DEEP.
MARCH.

4. When ground is to be taken to the left. - The rear rank steps back as before, and on the word MARCH, the whole face to the left, and the left files, at the same instant, form on the left of the right files, by taking one pace to the left with the left feet, and one pace to the rear with the right feet.

In all these formations two deep is re-formed from each of them by the word Front, upon which the files move up to their respective intervals into line, the rear rank immediately Closing on the front rank: the word Halt will precede the word Front if the company has been in movement.

In moving to a flank, file marching may be adopted, if necessary, by the files leading out in their proper order upon the word FORM TWO DEEP; and at the word RE-FORM FOUR DEEP resuming their former places.

Sec. 6. File Marching.
LEFT FACE.
QUICK MARCH.

Halt,

Front.

In marching by files, the commander of the company will lead on the inward flank of the front rank, his covering serjeant leading the front rank; therefore when the movement is by the left, on the word TO THE LEFT FACE, he will instantly shift to the left flank of the company by the front, and his covering serjeant by the rear; at the word QUICK MARCH, the whole step off together (vide Sec. 18, Part I.); and on the word Halt, Front, the leader and his serjeant will return to their posts on the right by the rear.

The company will also be taught to advance in double files from the centre, receiving from the instructor of the drill the command by SUB-DIVISIONS INWARDS FACE; upon which the two centre files disengage by the side step, bringing the shoulders forward at the word QUICK MARCH, and lead straight to the front, the front and rear-rank men in line.

The officer and his covering serjeant will lead, in their relative situations as above prescribed, the left or right centre file of the pivot sub-division.

On the command FRONT FORM COMPANY, the leading files mark time and close in, their rear-rank men falling to the rear; the remainder turn their bodies a whole face outwards, and wheel inwards, looking to the outward flank, and feeling to the centre.

As soon as the quarter circle is completed, the word Forward is given, if the march is to be continued.

If the company from double files is to be formed to a flank (suppose the right), the instructor gives the caution TO THE RIGHT, FORM COMPANY, when the commander of the company will give the command Right Sub-division, Halt, Front. The remainder of the company march on in file, and form on the left of the halted sub-division in succession, halting as they come into line.

When the advance in double files from the centre is made on the march the command is Sub-divisions inwards turn, Right and Left Wheel, and the movement proceeds as above directed.

Sec. 7. Wheeling from a Halt.
RIGHT WHEEL, QUICK MARCH.

Halt,

Dress.

In wheeling either forward or backward, from a halt, the commander of the company, on the word RIGHT or LEFT WHEEL, moves out and places himself one pace in front of the centre of his company; during the wheel, he turns towards his men, and inclines towards that flank, which has been named as the directing or pivot one, giving the word Halt, Dress, when his wheeling man has just completed the required degree of wheel; he then. squares his company, but without moving what was the standing flank, and takes his post on the directing flank.

Sec. 8. Wheeling forward by Sub-divisions from Line.
BY SUB-DIVISIONS, RIGHT WHEEL

1. On the caution BY SUB-DIVISIONS, RIGHT WHEEL, the commander of the company places himself one pace in front of the centre of the right sub-division, at the same time the men on the right of the front rank of each sub-division face to the right.

QUICK MARCH.

Halt, Dress.

At the word QUICK MARCH, each sub-division steps off in quick time, observing the directions given in Secs. 19 and 36, Part I. The commander of the company turning towards the men of the leading sub-division, and inclining to its left (the proper pivot flank), gives the word Halt, Dress, for both sub-divisions, as his wheeling man is taking the last step that finishes the wheel square; and instantly posts himself on the left, the pivot flank. The covering serjeant, shifting by the rear to the proper pivot flank, assumes his place in column, one pace in rear of the second file from the pivot, the senior subaltern taking post On the pivot flank of the, second sub-division; the commander of the Company always leading the first.

2. The company marching to the front may be wheeled into open column of sub-divisions on the movable pivot to either flank without halting; the instructor giving the word FORWARD when the sub-divisions have wheeled square into column.

The proper pivot flank in column is that which, when wheeled up to, preserves the divisions of the line in the natural order and to their proper front; the other is the reverse flank.

In column, divisions cover and dress to the proper pivot flank to the left when the right is in front, and to the right when. the left is in front.

Sec. 9. Wheeling backwards by Sub-divisions from Line.
CAUTION

The company will also break into open column of sub-divisions by wheeling backwards. - When the right is intended to be in front: at the caution BY SUB-DIVISIONS ON THE LEFT BACKWARD WHEEL, the commander of the company moves out briskly and places himself one pace in front of the centre of the right sub-division. The man on the left of the front rank of each sub-division at the game time faces to the right.

QUICK MARCH.

Halt, Dress.

On the Word QUICK MARCH, each sub-division wheels backward, as directed in Sections 20 and 37, Part I. During the wheel, the commander of the company turns towards his men, inclining at the same time to the left, or pivot flank, and on completing the wheel gives the word Halt, Dress, to both divisions; he and his covering serjeant then place themselves in their proper stations, as directed in the last section.

Sec. 10. Marching on an Alignment, in Open Column-of Sub-divisions.
MARCH.

The company having wheeled backwards, by sub-divisions from line (as directed in the foregoing Section), and a distant marked object in the prolongation of the two pivot flanks being taken, the commander of the company, who is now on the pivot flank of the leading sub-division, immediately fixes on his intermediate points to march on. (Vide Sec. 9, Part II.) On the word MARCH, given by the instructor of the drill, both divisions step off at the same instant; the leader of the first division marching with the utmost steadiness and equality of pace on the points he has taken; and the commander of the second division preserving the leader of the first in the exact line with the distant object; at the same time he keeps the distance necessary for forming from the preceding division, which distance is to be taken from the front rank. - These objects must occupy the whole attention of the leaders of the two divisions.

Sec. 11. Wheeling into Line from Open Column of sub-divisions.
HALT.

LEFT WHEEL INTO LINE.

QUICK MARCH.

Halt, Dress.

Eyes front.

1. The company being in open column of sub-divisions, marching on the alignment, receives the word HALT from the instructor of the drill; both divisions instantly halt, and the instructor sees that the leaders of the divisions are correct on the line in which they have moved; he then gives the word (supposing the right of the company to be in front) by sub-divisions LEFT WHEEL INTO LINE; on which the commander of the company goes to the centre of his sub-division, the two pivot men face to their left exactly square with the alignment, the rear rank men covering off, and a serjeant runs out and places himself in a line with them so as to mark the precise point at which the right flank of the leading sub-division is to halt, when it shall have completed its wheel. At the word Quick MARCH, the whole wheel up in quick time; during the wheel the commander of the company, turning towards his men, inclines to the wheeling flank, and gives the word Halt, Dress, at the moment the wheel of the division is completed: the commander of the company, if necessary, corrects the internal dressing of the company on the serjeant and pivot men: this dressing must be quickly made, and, when done, the commander of the company gives the words Eyes front, and takes post in line, as directed in Sec. 1, Part II.

2. The company may be wheeled into line on the march on the movable pivot, receiving from the instructor the command SHOULDERS FORWARD, then FORWARD, or HALT, DRESS, When the wheel is complete.

In all wheels of the division of a column that are to be made on a halted pivot in order to form line, the flank men of the front rank on the hand wheeled to is such pivot.

All wheelings by sub-divisions, or sections, from line into column, or from column into line, are performed on the word given by the commander of a battalion, when the whole of a battalion is at the same instant so to wheel; or on the word given by the commander of the company, when companies singly or successively, so wheel; they are not to be repeated by the leaders of its divisions.

When the company is in open column of sub-divisions, it must be occasionally practised to wheel into line upon the reverse flank of the column; and in showing a front line also to that reverse flank by wheeling backwards on the regular pivots. On the caution to wheel into line by companies, pivot men face and raise their right arms from the elbow horizontally. On the word Eyes front, the hand resumes its usual position.

Sec. 12. In Open Column of Sub-divisions entering into a new Direction on a movable Pivot.
Right Shoulders forward.
Forward.

The commander of the leading sub-division, when it arrives at the new direction, will give the word Right (or Left) Shoulders forward (vide Sec. 21, Part I.), and when his sub-division has wheeled square to that direction, he will give the word Forward. The leader of the second sub-division, when he arrives at the ground where the first began to change its direction, will give the same words, following the exact tract, and always preserving his ,.distance from the division in his front.

1. If the proper pivot flank is to be the wheeling one, each commander of a division gives his word Shoulders forward as he successively arrives at such a distance from the point on which he has moved, as that, at the completion of the wheel, his division may receive the word Forward when perpendicular to the new line, but with the given point, of course, behind the proper pivot; and that he also in his own person be on the new direction, prepared to give his word Forward, and to proceed.

2. The sub-divisions must take care that they continue their march correctly upon the point where the leading one wheeled, and that they do not shift to either flank, which, without much attention, they are apt to do.

Sec. 13. Countermarching.

The company, when it is to countermarch, must always be considered as a division of a battalion in column; the instructor of the drill will therefore, previous to his giving the caution to countermarch, signify whether the right or left is supposed to be in front, that the commander of the company and his covering serjeant may be placed on the pivot flank before such caution is given, as it is an invariable rule in the countermarch of the divisions of a column by files, that the facings be made from the flank then the pivot one, to the one which is to become such.

  Countermarch by Files.
RIGHT (or LEFT) FACE.

QUICK MARCH.

Halt, Front, Dress.

1. On the word RIGHT, or LEFT, FACE, the company faces, the commander of it immediately takes one pace outwards, and faces inwards ready to halt his company; and his covering serjeant faces to the right about, and covers. At the word QUICK MARCH, the. whole, except the commander and his covering serjeant, step off together, and the leading file wheeling short round the front rank, proceeds, followed by the company in file, till it has reached the covering serjeant, who has remained immovable: when the commander instantly gives the words Halt, Front, Dress, squares and closes his company on his serjeant, and then replaces him.

  Countermarch by Ranks.
RIGHT AND LEFT FACE.

2. On the word FACE, whether the right or left is in front, the front rank faces to the right, the rear rank to the left; commanders place themselves on the- outward flank of their serjeants facing inwards, and the covering serjeants go to the right about.

RIGHT COUNTER. MARCH.

QUICK MARCH.

Halt, Front, Dress.

The whole step off together, the two ranks severally wheeling in single file, till the pivot man of the front rank comes close to the covering serjeant; they then receive the word Halt, Front, Dress, from the officer, who replaces the serjeant.

All countermarches by files necessarily tend to an extension of the files; unity of step is therefore absolutely indispensable, and the greatest care must be taken that the wheel of each file be made close, quick, and at an increased length of step of the wheeling man, so as not to retard or lengthen out the march of the wbole.

Companies, or their divisions, when brought up in file to a new line, are not to stand in that position till the men cover each other minutely; but the instant the leading man is at his point, They will receive the word Halt, Front, and in that situation close in and dress correctly.

Sec. 14. Wheeling on the Centre of the Company.

The company must be accustomed to wheel upon its centre half backward, half forward, and to be pliable into every shape which circumstances can require of it; but always in order, and by a decided command.

The words of Command are,

COMPANY, ON THE CENTRE,

(RIGHT or LEFT or RIGHT-ABOUT or LEFT-ABOUT),

WHEEL.








Halt, Dress.

When the wheel is to the right, or right about, the right half company wheels backward, and the left forward. In this case the right-hand man of the left sub-division is the pivot man; he faces to his right, or right about, and the covering serjeant springs out and aligns himself with him, but to the flank. which is to become the pivot. The commander moves out and places himself one pace in front of the centre of his company, and during the wheel turns towards the flank which is to become the pivot and superintends the wheel. The reverse will take place, when the wheel is to be made to the left, or to the left about. The left-hand man of the right sub-division is then the pivot man, who will face to his left, or left about; the covering serjeant aligns himself with him, as in the wheel to the right. On the word MARCH, the whole move off together in quick time, regulating by the two flank men, who, during the wheel, preserve themselves in line with the centre of the company; as soon as the required degree of wheel is performed, the commander of the company gives the word Halt, Dress, the whole feeling the centre, and instantly squares it from that flank, on which he himself is to take post.

Sec. 15. Diagonal March.

The instructor of the drill will have the diagonal march frequently practised, in company, and in sub-divisions: (vide Secs. 22 and 23, Part I.) He will see that the rear rank locks well up, and covers exactly; that the exact distances are preserved between the files; and that the pivots, or outward files, march in the direct line to which they have faced, the others conforming to them.

Sec. 16. Increasing and Diminishing the Front of an Open Column halted.
Increasing.
FORM COMPANY.

Left Sub-division, Left Half Face, Quick March.

Halt, Front, Dress up.

The company standing in open column of sub-divisions (suppose the right in front) receives from the instructor of the drill a caution to FORM COMPANY; upon which the covering serjeants will run' out to mark the pivot flank. The commander of the company faces to his right, instantly orders, Left Sub-division, Left Half Face, Quick March.

On the word Quick March, the commander will step back to where the left of his company will rest, and the leading (or pivot) file will march straight on the covering serjeant. When the left sub-division has obliqued so as to gain the line of the right sub-division, the commander gives the word Halt, Front, Dress up, the whole feeling the standing flank and dressing by the pivot, and takes post on the left, the pivot flank of the company.

Diminishing.
FORM SUB-DIVISIONS.

Left Sub division, Right about three quarters Face, Quick March.

Halt, Front, Dress.

On the cautionary command from the instructor of the drill to FORM SUB-DIVISIONS, the senior subaltern instantly falls back to mark the point where the left. flank of the sub-division is to rest. The commander of the company takes one pace to his front and faces to his right, orders Left Sub-division, Right about three-quarters Face, Quick March; and the leading file of the left sub-division marches in the diagonal direction until the pivot file reaches the officer who has taken up his distance and covers; and who, when it shall reach him, gives the words Halt, Front, Dress.

The commander remains on the left flank of the right sub-division, and the next officer on that of the left.

In increasing and diminishing the front of an open column halted, upon the usual caution, the rear-rank man of the pivot file of the reverse sub-division falls back and covers the third file of his sub-division, in order to leave room for the flank of the other sub-division, resuming his place as soon as the flanks are clear.

It is to be observed as a general rule in diminishing the front of a column by the doubling of sub-divisions or sections, whether the column be halted or in motion, that the sub-division or section on the reverse flank is the one behind which the other sub-divisions or sections double. Thus, when the right is in front, the doubling will be in the rear of the right sub-division; and vice versa when the left is in front. And in increasing the front of a column, the rear sub-divisions, or sections, oblique to the hand the pivot flank is on; so that, when the right is in front, the obliquing will be to the left, and the reverse when the left is in front.

Sec. 17. Increasing and Diminishing the Front of an Open Column on the March.
Increasing.
FORM COMPANY.
Left Sub-division, Left half turn, Double.
Front turn. Quick.

The company marching at quick time in open column of sub-divisions (suppose right in front), receives from the instructor of the drill the cautionary command, FORM COMPANY the commander of the company, instantly turning round, gives the words Left Sub-division, left half turn, Double, and it instantly moves off at the Double March; and as soon as its inward flank is open, it receives the word Front turn, and when in line with the reverse sub-division, Quick, the commander taking post on the pivot flank, towards which he has been moving.

Diminishing.
FORM SUB-DIVISIONS.
Left Sub-division, mark time;
Right half turn.

When the instructor of the drill gives the caution to FORM SUB-DIVISIONS, the commander of the company, advancing one step, immediately orders, Left Sub-division, mark time right half turn; and when it has doubled properly behind the right one, the senior subaltern gives the word Front turn, placing himself on its pivot flank.

The same directions that apply to increasing or diminishing by sub-divisions apply equally by sections.

If the column is moving in slow time, when its front is to be increased, the division moving up will do so in quick time; but when the column is marching in quick time, the rear sub-division will in that case move up in double time as directed.

Sec. 18. The Company in Open Column of sub-divisions to pass a short Defile by breaking off Files.
BREAK OFF 3 FILES.

Three files, right turn, left wheel.

The company is supposed in open column of sub-divisions, with the right in front; when the leading division is arrived within a few paces of the defile, it receives from the instructor of the drill an order to break off a certain number of files (suppose three). The commander of the leading division instantly gives the words Three files on the left, right turn, left wheel: the named files immediately turn to the right, and wheeling to the left follow in file in rear of the left flank of the sub-division. When the second sub-division comes to the spot where the first division contracted its front, it will receive the same words of command from its own leader, and will proceed in like manner.

Two files right turn.

Should it be required to diminish the front of the column one or two files more,, the commander of the leading division will, as before, order the desired number of files to turn: on which those already in the rear will incline to the right so as to cover the files now ordered to break off, and which turn to the right and wheel to the left in the manner already prescribed.

In this movement, the files in the rear of the sub-divisions must lock well up, so as not to impede the march of the succeeding division. The covering serjeant will cover his officer until all the files are again brought up.

Three files, to the front.

As the defile widens (or the instructor of the drill shall direct), the commander of the leading sub-division will order files to move up to the front, by giving the word One, two, or three files to the front; on which the named files turn to their front (the left), and lengthening their pace, march up, file by file, to the front of their sub-division, and immediately resume the march. Those files which are to continue in the rear will oblique to the left, lengthening also their step, till they cover, and are closed up to the right flank of their sub-division.

It is to be observed, that in passing a defile, the rule is that the file breaks off from. the pivot flank; but interruption. may in some cases present themselves requiring that files be broken off from the reverse flank. The same instructions apply in both cases.

Sec. 19. The Company Halted or on the March moves to a Flank, in Column of Sections, or of Sections of Threes.
SECTIONS, on THREES, RIGHT OR LEFT SHOULDERS FORWARD -
if halted,QUICK MARCH, FORWARD.
SECTIONS, OR THREES, ON THE RIGHT OR LEFT BACKWARDS WHEEL, QUICK MARCH,
Halt, Dress.
RIGHT OR LEFT SHOULDERS FORWARD -
FORWARD,
or Halt, Dress.
RIGHT OR LEFT WHEEL INTO LINE, QUICK MARCH,
Halt, Dress.

The company from line will be practised in forming sections and sections of threes. both when halted and in motion, by the command, SECTIONS, OR THREES, RIGHT OR LEFT SHOULDERS FORWARD - QUICK MARCH, FORWARD; and the only exception to this rule will be, when pivots are required to be accurately dressed, or when the alignment of the company is to be preserved: in this case the command will be, SECTIONS, OR THREES, ON THE RIGHT OR .LEFT, BACKWARDS WHEEL, QUICK MARCH, Halt, Dress.

In re-forming company, the command will be RIGHT OR LEFT SHOULDERS FORWARD - FORWARD, if the march is to be continued; otherwise Halt, Dress.

When pivots are required to be accurately dressed, or when the alignment is to be preserved, the command will be, RIGHT OR LEFT WHEEL INTO LINE, QUICK MARCH, Halt, Dress.

The word Forward, or Halt, must be given just as the outward men of threes are completing their pace.

Should the telling off by threes leave either one or two files over, they will be placed on the right of the left section of threes, which is always to be complete. If there is one file over-on the word, THREES, SHOULDERS FORWARD, the front-rank man wheels up, and places himself in rear of the pivot flank of the section in front of him; his rear-rank man placing himself in the rear of its reverse flank, both men locking up; but if the odd file is a blank one, the reverse flank of the preceding section must necessarily remain uncovered. If there are two files over, they wheel as ordered, and form a section of themselves, covering the outward flanks of the section preceding them; but if one of these two files is a blank file, the three men will form a single rank, the two front-rank men covering the flanks of the preceding section, and the rear-rank man stepping up between them.

In forming threes from line to the right or to the left by the shoulders forward, the leading section must frequently be practised to wheel upon the centre man of the three, as they will often be required to do so, in disengaging to the rear when formed as a division of a line.

The company at any time may form, THREES to a flank, after the telling off has been deranged, if the men are practised to do so rapidly in succession. The first three is formed at once; the fourth man in the front rank then sees that he is the pivot for the next three, and turns or faces into the new direction; the seventh file then follows, and so on to the reverse flank of the company: when on the march, the company may mark time until. the threes are formed, when they receive the word FORWARD.

In changing the direction of a column of threes, the command will be the same as in file marching, right wheel - left wheel.

Should it be required to form company upon the leading three, the commander will order FRONT, FORM COMPANY, upon which the leading three will mark time, the remainder will. make a half turn to the proper hand, and moving up to their proper places in line will mark time, until the word FORWARD or HALT is given.

If from sections of threes it be required to form sub-divisions or sections, the commander will order RIGHT (or LEFT) TURN, RIGHT (or LEFT) WHEEL, and when in file, FRONT FORM SUB-DIVISIONS (or SECTIONS), upon which the leading file of sub-divisions (or sections) will mark time; the remainder turn their bodies a whole face to the proper hand, and wheel in sub-divisions or sections to the right or left as may be required. During these formations the company leader will move by the front to his proper station.

The company marching to a flank in threes will be practised to turn to the right and left, and to the right about, wheeling forward, afterwards, rear rank in front: the company may also be inverted by wheeling the threes forward on their reverse flank, as the inversion can at any moment be corrected.

Sec. 20. Forming Company, Sub-divisions, Sections, or Sections of Threes, from File Marching.
FRONT FORM COMPANY, SUB-DIVISIONS on SECTIONS.

At this word of command, the leading file marks time, the remainder turn their bodies a whole face to the left and wheel to the right, looking to the outward flank and feeling inwards, (that is to say) if right in front, turn to the left, and if left in front, turn to the right, the officer, if not already in his, place, passing along the front to it during the wheel.

As soon as the quarter circle is complete, the word FORWARD is given, if the march is to be continued.

The company marching in file (suppose from the right) has only to halt and front to be formed to the left flank.

ON THE LEADING FILE TO THE RIGHT, FORM COMPANY.

At this word of command, the front-rank man of the leading file will turn to the right, take one pace to the front and halt, the rear rank moving round and covering; the remainder of the company form on the left of the right file by files in succession.

ON THE LEADING FILE TO THE RIGHT ABOUT, FORM COMPANY.

At this word the leading file wheels to the right about, taking one pace to the front after wheeling; the remainder of the company march on in file, wheeling round the halted file, and forming on its left by files in succession, each file as it comes into the line taking up its dressing from the standing flank.

Sec. 21. To form to either Flank, from Open Column of Sub-divisions.
HALT, LEFT WHEEL INTO LINE,
QUICK MARCH.

The company marching in open column of sub-divisions, to form to its left, receives the words, HALT LEFT WHEEL INTO LINE, QUICK MARCH, &c., and proceeds as has already been shown in Sec. 11, Part II.

TO THE RIGHT, FORM COMPANY.

Left shoulders forward - forward.
Halt, Dress.
Left or Right oblique.
Forward.
Left Shoulders forward.
Halt. Dress.

To form the company to its right flank, the instructor of the drill gives the cautionary word of command TO THE RIGHT, FORM COMPANY; on which the commanders of the several divisions shift to the right flank, and the commander of the leading sub-division instantly gives the word to his division, Left Shoulders Forward. When it has wheeled square, he orders Forward, and having gained three paces, he gives the word, Halt, dress, and dresses on the intended line of formation. The second sub-division must gradually incline to the left by the oblique step, by word of command from its commander, in order to be able to march clear of the first, and when it is arrived at the left flank of the first, its commander falling to the rear, gives the Word, Left Shoulders forward - forward then Halt, dress up: on which the division moves up into the line with the one formed; and the commander of the company dresses it from the outward flank of the first formed sub-division, and resumes his proper place.

Sec. 22. The Company moving to the Front, to gain Ground to a Flank, by a March in Echellon by Sections.
SECTIONS RIGHT.


FORWARD.

The company, marching to the front, receives the word SECTIONS RIGHT; the right-hand men of the front rank of each section, turning in a small degree to their right, mark the time two paces, during which the sections are wheeling on their pivot men; at the third pace, and at the word FORWARD, the whole move on direct to the front that each section has now acquired, and the company continues its march in echellon.

FORM COMPANY.


FORWARD.

On the word FORM COMPANY, the pivot men mark the time as before, turning back in a small degree to the left, the original front, and the sections instantly wheel backward into line; on the word FORWARD, the whole advance in line.

Sec. 23. To form the Rallying Square.
FORM THE RALLYING SQUARE.

1. The instructor of the drill having caused the company to disperse to a certain distance, will give the word FORM THE RALLYING SQUARE, at the same time placing himself facing the supposed enemy., the men hasten to the person so posted, fixing bayonets and ordering their arms as they reach him. The two first who. join him form on his right and left, facing outwards. The three next place themselves in front of those posted, and three others to the rear facing to the rear, this forming a square of three. The instructor will cause the next four men to take post at the several angles and others as they come up will complete the different faces between these angles, which will form a Square of five.

2. A square thus composed of twenty-four men (besides the person who is to rally) and formed two deep, may be augmented to a square of seven, three deep, by four more men taking posts at the angles, and others coming up to complete the faces as before; the square will then consist of forty eight men, and may be augmented- in the same manner to a square of nine, four deep, by the angles being occupied by four more men, and the faces filled up as before; and the square will then ,be composed of eighty men.

THE SQUARE WILL MOVE TO THE FRONT, REAR, RIGHT, OR LEFT, INWARDS FACE.
QUICK MARCH.

3. When the square is to march. - In order to move with the necessary regularity, previously to putting the square in motion, the instructor will cause the faces to be dressed; and. after the caution, he will give the words INWARDS FACE, and it will face in the named direction, and step off accordingly at the word QUICK MARCH.

HALT, PREPARE TO RESIST CAVALRY.

READY.

4. To resist Cavalry. - Upon, the Word HALT, the square will halt and face outwards, and when it is to PREPARE TO RESIST CAVALRY; - upon the word READY, the front rank only (if the square is two or three deep) will kneel; if four deep, the two front ranks will kneel. If ordered to fire, the standing ranks only will commence an independent fire, bringing the firelock gradually up to the Present.

Reduce the Square.
Quick March.

When the square is to be reduced, two non-commissioned officers will mark the alignment facing the supposed enemy. On the word Quick March, the men open out, and fall in, in their proper places.

In this manner, small dispersed parties, from eight to eighty men, may be formed to resist an attack of cavalry in an open country, where, from whatever cause, soldiers may have separated from the column of march.

When a company, or other small body in close files, requires to form to resist cavalry, it may be wheeled forward into column of sections, and closed to the front. When halted, the two rear sections face to the right about, and the two outward files of the second and third sections face to their right and left, so as to present a front in all directions. The men on the angles also face to their right and left.

 

 

 

 

END OF PART II

 

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